Following is a list of selected readings which show the progression of transtracheal oxygen therapy.  For a full list of references, please contact our Technical Services department at

Heimlich, HJ. Respiratory rehabilitation with transtracheal oxygen system. Annals of  Otolrhinollaryngoly 1982;91:643-47.

Heimlich HJ, Carr GC, Transtracheal catheter technique for pulmonary rehabilitation. Annals of Otolrhinollaryngoly 1985;94:502-04.

Christopher KL, Spofford BT, Brannin PK, Petty TL. Transtracheal oxygen therapy for refractory hypoxemia. JAMA 1986;256:494-97.

Leger P, Gerard M, Robert D. Home use of transtracheal catheter for long term oxygen therapy of 30 chronic respiratory insufficiency patients (abstract). Chest 1986;89:486S.

Banner NR, Govan JR.. Long term transtracheal oxygen delivery through microcatheter in patients with hypoxemia due to chronic obstructive airways disease. Br Med J 1986;293:111-14. British Medical Journal.

Hoffman LA, Dauber JH,Ferson PF, Openbrier DR, Zullo TG. Patient response to transtracheal oxygen delivery. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1987;135:153-56.

Spofford B, Christopher KL, McCarty D. Goodman J. Transtracheal oxygen therapy: a guide for the respiratory therapist. Respiratory Care 1987;32;345-52.

Christopher KL,Spofford BT, Petrun MD, McCarth DC, Goodman JR, Petty TL. A program for transtracheal oxygen delivery: assessment of safety and efficacy. Ann Intern Med 1987;107:802-08. Annals of Internal Medicine.

Bell CW, O'Donohue WJ, Dewan NA, Campbell JC, Angelillo VA, Andersen B. Effects of transtracheal oxygen therapy on exercise capacity. J Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation 1988;11-449-52.

Couser JI, Make BJ. Transtracheal oxygen decreases inspired minute ventilation. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1989;139:627-31.
Bergofsky EH, Hurewitz AN. Airway insufflation: physiologic effects on acute and chronic gas exchange in humans. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1989;140:885-90.
Bloom, BS, Daniel JM, Wiseman M, Knorr RS, Cebul R, Kissick WL. Transtracheal oxygen delivery and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Respiratory Medicine 1989;83:281-88.

Christopher KL, Murry I, Simpson R, Goldy K, Worley P, Spofford B, Goodman J. Transtracheal augmentation of ventilation (abstract). Chest 1989;96:174S.

Schaten MA, Christopher KL, Goodman S, Goodman JR, Worley PD, Yaeger ES, Warren LR, Petty TL. High-flow transtracheal oxygen: a promising technique for the management of hypercarbic respiratory failure (abstract). Chest 1990;98:22S.

Benditt JO, Rassulo J, Celli BR. Work of breathing during direct tracheal O2 administration in patients with severe chronic lung disease. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1990;141:A883.

Tiep BL, Christopher KL, Spofford BT, Goodman JR, Worley PD, Macy SL. Pulsed nasal and transtracheal oxygen delivery. Chest 1990;97:364-68.

Wesmiller SW, Hoffman LA, Sciurba FC,Ferson PF, Johnson JL, Dauber JH. Exercise tolerance during nasal cannula and transtracheal oxygen delivery. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1990;141:789-91.

Chauncey JB, Aldrich MS. Preliminary findings in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with transtracheal oxygen. Sleep 1990;13:167-74.

Burton G, Wagshul FA, Kime W, Henderson D. Fatal mucus-ball obstruction of the central airway in a transtracheal oxygen therapy patient (abstract). Respiratory Care 1990;35:1143.

Walsh DA, Govan JR. Long term continuous domiciliary oxygen therapy by transtracheal catheter. Thorax 1990;45:478-81.

Spofford BT, Christopher KL, Goodman JR. Transtracheal oxygen therapy. In: Christopher KL. (guest Ed): Problems in Respiratory Care - The Current Status of Oxygen Therapy. J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia, 1990.

Hoffman LA, Johnson JT, Wesmiller SW, Sciurba FC, Ferson PF, Mazzocco MC, Dauber JH, Transtracheal delivery of oxygen: efficacy and safety for long-term continuous therapy. Annals of Otolrhinollaryngoly 1991:100:108-15.

Dewan,NA, Bell CW, O'Donohue WJ, McAlexander E, Campbell JC, Angelillo VA. Sequellae and complications during long-term follow-up of transtracheal oxygen therapy TTO2 (abstract). American Review of Respiratory Disease 1991;143 (suppl):A78.

Franey RJ, Walker JM, Elmer JC, Viscomi VA, Ord RJ. Transtracheal oxygen therapy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea. Operative Techniques in Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery 1991;2:132-36.

O'Donohue WJ. Effect of oxygen therapy on increasing arterial oxygen tension in hypoxemic patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease while breathing ambient air. Chest 1991;100:968-72.

Domingo C, Izquierdo J,Domingo E, Klamburg J, Coll R, Morera J, D'Hebron HV. Acute hemodynamic response to transtracheal versus nasal prongs oxygenation. Chest 1991;100-52S.
Dewan NA, Bell CW. Effective of high flow and low flow oxygen delivery via transtracheal catheter and nasal cannulae on exercise tolerance and sensation of dyspnea. Chest 1991;100:52S.
Domingo C, Domingo E, Klamburg J, Roig J, Izquierdo J, Morera J. Hemodynamic follow-up in COPD with 24 hour liquid oxygen therapy through transtracheal catheter. Chest 1991;100:52S.

Hurewitz AN, Bergopfsky EH, Vomero E. Airway insufflation - increasing flow rates progressively reduce dead space in respiratory failure. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1991;144:1229-33.

Hoffman LA, Wesmiller SW, Sciurba FC, Johnson JT, Ferson PF, Zullo TB, Dauber JH. Nasal cannula and transtracheal oxygen delivery: a comparison of patient response following 6 months use of each technique. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1992;145:827-31.

Couser JI, Make BJ. Respiratory tract infection complicating transtracheal oxygen therapy. Chest 1992;101:273-75.

Reinke LF, Hoffman LA. Transtracheal oxygen: patient management strategies. Journal of Respiratory Care Practitioners 1992;66-71.

Farney RJ, Walker JM,Elmer JC,Viscomi VA, Ord RJ. Transtracheal oxygen, nasal CPAP and nasal oxygen in five patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 1992;101:128-35.

O'donohue WJ. Transtracheal Oxygen: a step beyond the nasal cannula for long term oxygen therapy. Nebraska Medical Journal 1992;77(11):291-95.

Benditt J, Pollock M, Roa J, Celli B. Transtracheal delivery of gas decreases the oxygen cost of breathing. American Review of Respiratory Disease 1993;147:1207-10.

Rai N, Megta A, Stelmach K, Meeker D, Stoller J. Complications of transtracheal oxygen therapy revisited: does practice make perfect: (abstract). American Review of Respiratory Disease 1993;147(4):A319.

Van Hooser DT, JorgensonS, Winslett L, Conner D, Christopher KL. Nocturnal "high flow" augmented ventilation (TTAV) improves exercise capacity in patients with severe lung disease (abstract). Respiratory Care 1993;38:1227.

Van Hooser DT, Jorgenson S, Winslett L, Christopher KL. Comparison of transtracheal augmented ventilation (TTAV) with conventional T-piece weaning (abstract). Respiratory Care 1993;38:1227.

Dewan NA, Bell CW. Effect of low flow and high flow oxygen delivery on exercise tolerance and sensation of dyspnea. A study comparing the transtracheal catheter and nasal prongs. Chest 1994;105(4):1061-5.

Yaeger ES, Goodman S, Hoddes E,Christopher KL. Oxygen therapy using pulse and continuous flow with a transtracheal catheter and a nasal cannula. Chest 1994;106:854-60.

Panitch HB, Isaacson G. Transtracheal oxygen use in a young girl with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatric Pulmonary 1994;18:255-57.

Jorgenson S, Van Hooser T, Winslett L, Conner D, Christopher K. Transtracheal augmentation of ventilation (abstract). American Review of Respiratory Disease 1994;149(4):A142.

Clifford D, Mender J, Worley P, Goodman J. Transtracheal oxygen improves survival and reduces hospital costs (abstract). American Journal of Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine April 1995;151:4:A681.

Berg J. Quality of life in COPD patients using transtracheal oxygen. Medical/Surgical Nursing 1996;5:36-40.

Lipkin A, Christopher K, Yaeger E, Diehl S, Jorgenson S. Otolaryngologist's role in transtracheal oxygen therapy. Annal of Otolaryngology - Head & Neck Surgery 1996;115:447-53.

Schneider H, O'Hearn D, Prasad M, LeBlanc K, Baron J, O"Donnell C, Smith PL, Schwartz AR. High flow transtracheal insufflation (TTI) in severe restrictive sleep apnea - an alternative to tracheostomy? (abstract). Respiratory & Critical Care Medicine 1997;155(4):A939.

Kampelmacher MJ, Deenstra M, van Kesteren RG, Melissant CF, Douze JMC, Lammers J-WJ. Transtracheal oxygen therapy: an effective and safe alternative to nasal oxygen administration. European  Respiratory Journal. 1997;10:828-833.

Orvidas LJ, Kasperbaur JL, Staats BA, Olsen KD.  Long-term clinical experience with transtracheal oxygen catheters. Mayo Clin Proc 1998; 73: 739-44.

Schneider H, O'Hearn DJ, Leblanc K, Smith PL, O'Donnell, CP, Eisele JHP, Schwartz AR.  High-flow Transtracheal Insufflation Treats Obstructive Sleep Apnea.  American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine 2000; 161: 1869-1876.

Christopher KL, VanHooser DT, Jorgenson SJ, Winslett L, Diehl SS, Young DA, Shapiro H, Petty TL.  Preliminary Observations of Transtracheal Augmented Ventilation for Chronic Severe Respiratory Disease.  Respiratory Care Jan. 2001; 46(1): 15-25.